GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS 2013: Nearly One-fifth of Turkey Meat Exported15 June 2014
Around 18 per cent of the turkey meat produced worldwide is traded, according to industry analyst, Terry Evans, in his latest review of the sector. The United States, Brazil and the European Union are the top exporting countries, accounting for around two-thirds of the total volume.
Exports of turkey meat represent some six per cent of the global trade in poultry meat. In 2011, exports of all forms of poultry meat totalled 16.5 million tonnes of which the trade in fresh and frozen turkey meat amounted to just under a million tonnes (Table 1).
Out of a global annual production of turkey meat in 2011 of around 5.5 million tonnes, almost one million tonnes or about 18 per cent is exported. However, if the quantities traded between European Union member countries are excluded, then the volume involved falls to around 600,000 tonnes or 11 per cent.
|Table 1. Exports of fresh and frozen turkey meat ('000 tonnes)|
|China, Hong Kong SAR||19.8||2.2||3.9||4.9||3.0||3.2||1.8|
|EU-27 ex int||237.8||118.5||114.7||106.1||92.8||113.5||127.2|
|# less than 50 tonnes
In 2012, exports could have exceeded one million tonnes for the first time, though the indications are that this upward trend suffered a slight reversal in 2013, primarily as a result of a reduction in sales from the US. This is apparent from the USDA data in Table 2 and Figure 1.
As the footnote explains, this assessment of exports excludes trade between EU member countries, the total for all the major exporters rising from 537,000 tonnes in 2009 to 707,000 tonnes in 2012. Since then, fewer exports from the US and from the EU to non-member states have declined, such that the estimated total has contracted to 659,000 tonnes.
|Table 2. Leading exporters of turkey meat ('000 tonnes)|
|F Forecast; * Selected countries; + Excludes trade between EU member countries
United States Leads Turkey Exports League Table
If the EU trading bloc is discounted, the US is the world’s leading turkey meat exporter even though shipments have slipped back from 362,000 tonnes in 2012 to an estimated 322,000 tonnes for 2014. So, in 2014, the US is expected to account for 49 per cent of total exports (excluding trade between EU countries), Brazil 27 per cent and the EU around 20 per cent.
In 2011, the United States exported a total of some 294,000 tonnes of fresh/frozen turkey meat to almost 100 countries. Mexico was the leading buyer, taking 169,000 tonnes, followed by China with 59,000 tonnes, and the Dominican Republic, Canada and the Philippines each taking around 5,000 tonnes.
Of the 362,000 tonnes traded in 2012, Mexico was again the main market, taking 187,000 tonnes, followed by China with 46,000 tonnes while the Philippines and Canada both purchased 14,000 tonnes.
For 2013, exports are currently assessed at 344,000 tonnes, while the latest estimate for 2014 stands at 322,000 tonnes. However, projections to 2023 suggest that US turkey exports will expand to around 400,000 tonnes.
Of the individual countries outside the EU, Brazil is the second biggest exporter. While the FAO data shows that Brazil’s exports of fresh/frozen turkey meat totalled 73,000 tonnes in 2011, this country’s total turkey meat exports including prepared and processed products amounted to some 141,000 tonnes of which, 75,000 tonnes went to EU countries, 12,000 tonnes to South Africa and 11,000 tonnes to Benin.
In 2012 Brazil’s total turkey meat exports increased to 170,000 tonnes, of which 82,000 tonnes were bought by EU countries, 21,000 tonnes by South Africa, 19,000 tonnes by Benin and almost 15,000 tonnes by Angola. Brazil’s exports are expected to expand further this year towards 180,000 tonnes.
Within the European Union, the most dramatic change which has occurred in the exports of fresh/frozen turkey meat has been the emergence of Poland as the leader in this field. In 2003, prior to Poland joining the Community in May 2004, her exports of turkey meat totalled 21,400 tonnes, of which nearly 15,000 tonnes went to Germany, 2,700 tonnes to the UK and 2,300 tonnes to the Russian Federation.
By 2011, this trade had grown five-fold to more than 102,000 tonnes, making Poland the top exporter in the EU. The biggest customer was Germany purchasing 38,000 tonnes, while China, Hong Kong, the Czech Republic and the UK each bought some 6,500 tonnes, followed by Denmark and Spain with some 6,000 or so tonnes.
Exports from France have slumped since 2000 from 287,000 tonnes to just 95,000 tonnes in 2011 as domestic production contracted dramatically during this period. Back in 2000, Germany acquired some 50,000 tonnes of French turkey meat while the Russian Federation took more than 44,000 tonnes. In contrast, in 2011, Germany bought only 11,000 tonnes while the trade with the Russian Federation had contracted to less than 4,000 tonnes.
Opposite to the French experience, turkey exports by Germany escalated from 32,000 tonnes in 2000 to around 92,000 tonnes in 2010/11. In the latter year, 24,000 tonnes went to Austria, 19,000 tonnes to the Netherlands and 9,000 tonnes to France.
The quantities exported from Africa, Asia and Oceania are minimal.
Europe Top for Turkey Meat Imports
Although the data on imports of fresh/frozen turkeys shows an increasing trend between 2009 and 2011 the quantities were still well below the 2007/08 levels (Table 3).
|Table 3. Imports of fresh and frozen turkey meat ('000 tonnes)|
|Dem. Rep. of Congo||#||#||11.5||9.9||9.8||9.8||11.4|
|China Hong Kong SAR||26.1||9.8||7.2||8.7||5.5||5.2||7.3|
|China, Taiwan Province||14.7||9.9||5.8||9.1||8.2||4.8||4.8|
|United Arab Emirates||0||8.9||5.9||5.1||5.1||1.8||2.9|
|EU-27 excl. int.||26.0||22.7||16.6||17.7||13.9||14.6||13.7|
|# less than 50 tonnes
Europe is easily the largest importing region taking 465,000 tonnes in 2011, or 47 per cent of the total exported. However, EU countries accounted for 414,000 tonnes or 89 per cent of the Europe total. All imports from outside the EU are under quotas granted to third countries, mainly Brazil.
Germany is by far the biggest importer in this region, taking 104,000 tonnes in 2011 with Poland the number one supplier with 34,000 tonnes followed by the UK, Italy and Portugal, each supplying around 12,000 tonnes.
Outside the EU, the Russian Federation is the major buyer though, as self-sufficiency there has grown, the volumes imported have fallen from over 105,000 tonnes in 2000 to around 26,000 tonnes in 2011. Since then, the decline appears to have continued to around 20,000 tonnes in 2012 and further to 14,000 tonnes in 2013, which is also the latest estimate for 2014.
In 2011, more than 150,000 tonnes, or three-quarters of fresh/frozen turkey imports into the Americas went to Mexico of which 147,000 tonnes (97 per cent) came from the US and almost 4,000 tonnes from Chile. The latest forecasts indicate that, in 2014, Mexico is likely to purchase some 180,000 tonnes of all forms of turkey.
Just over 100,000 tonnes were imported into Asia in 2011, mainland China taking 34,000 tonnes and Saudi Arabia 32,000 tonnes. Some 94 per cent of China’s imports came from the US, while 96 per cent of the shipments to Saudi Arabia were supplied by Brazil.
Imports into Africa have risen to almost 110,000 tonnes, primarily because Benin has increased its purchases from 23,000 tonnes in 2000 to almost 50,000 tonnes in 2011. However, it is possible that much of this is transhipped to other countries.
South Africa is the only other significant importer of turkey meat in the region and although the data in Table 1 point to a slight decline in purchases since 2008, more recent figures suggest that imports have since increased towards the 40,000 tonnes a year level, with Brazil the main supplier.
There are several reasons why the annual statistics on imports do not balance with those on exports including:
- Some countries only supply data to the FAO on general rather than specific trade.
- Some countries report the data for a calendar year, while others return the data on a financial or market year basis.
- Time lags: goods shipped towards the end of a year may not be recorded as imports until the following year.
- For single commodities, there can be misclassification of a product between the exporter and importer.
- Data confidentiality by one of the parties.
- Place of origin/final destination inconsistencies: for example, country A may report the final destination as being country C when the goods actually reached C via country B with the result that country C reported that country B was the place of origin of the products.
- Customs tax avoidance by misrepresenting a commodity when imported, or not reporting a transhipment of a commodity. In some instances, exports may not be declared in order to circumvent an embargo.
- There can be simple typing or calculation errors by a reporting country.
- Product can be destroyed or lost en route due to accidents, weather conditions, etc.
Go to our previous report on global turkey meat production by clicking here.