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GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS 2013: Asian Egg Imports and Exports on the Rise

15 March 2014

Global Poultry Trends 2010

Asia accounts for around 30 per cent of the global trade in shell eggs, according to industry analyst, Terry Evans but the region participates little in the trade in dried or liquid egg products.

Although the global trade in shell eggs dipped in 2011 as a result of a slump in sales from Europe, over the decade to 2010, the quantities traded doubled from a little under one million tonnes to more than two million tonnes (Figure 1).

world egg exports FAO
Figure 1. Exports of hen eggs in shell ('000 tonnes)

Asia’s contribution to this business (Table 1) increased from 204,000 tonnes (21.6 per cent of the world total) in 2000 to 553,000 tonnes (30.6 per cent) in 2011.

Shell Egg Exports: Rapid Expansion in Turkey

Most noticeable aspect of this trade has been the rapid expansion in exports from Turkey as annual sales have escalated from less than 4,000 tonnes (1.7 per cent of the regional total) in 2000 to exceed 200,000 tonnes (37 per cent) in 2011. Of the latter, nearly 160,000 tonnes (78 per cent) were sold to Iraq and 27,000 tonnes (13 per cent) to Iran. The upward trend appears to have continued as the latest figure provided by the International Egg Commission (IEC) for 2012 points to Turkey’s exports reaching a new record of 255,000 tonnes.

Table 1. Hen egg exports in shell from Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Armenia 154 699 135 171 240 155 0
Azerbaijan 0 893 58 280 148 0 0
Bahrain 0 0 40 0 24 0 0
Bangladesh 0 5 0 0 0 0 0
Bhutan 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
China, mainland 64,646 79,889 118,832 144,374 133,854 100,225 99,748
China, Hong Kong SAR 303 293 346 433 601 613 818
China, Macao SAR 10 0 6 6 2 0 0
Cyprus 85 38 10 20 80 210 142
Georgia 0 2 779 74 1,020 13 238
India 11,344 58,744 67,259 52,409 44,180 34,861 33,915
Indonesia 211 10 19 3 7 6 1
Iran Isl. Rep. 38,751 2,537 10,395 8,617 395 20,979 2,839
Israel 2,188 636 0 810 338 169 229
Japan 40 147 247 380 683 872 290
Jordan 1,443 1,163 3,467 6,151 6,118 9,376 4,058
Kazakhstan 63 0 2 40 0 37 0
Korea Rep. 1 5 2 17 256 402 56
Kuwait 1,535 46 92 0 314 1,684 1,941
Kyrgyzstan 2 59 36 31 30 0 0
Lebanon 1,118 3,666 12,415 10,325 9,281 8,821 3,053
Malaysia 55,638 60,367 69,277 116,991 97,863 89,243 137,715
Oman 2,096 3,780 2,106 4,873 5,125 5,628 5,492
Pakistan 674 1,240 565 166 74 714 2,524
Philippines 18 20 9 5 4 4 2
Qatar 4 95 235 30 23 23 23
Saudi Arabia 7,669 12,665 28,155 11,472 29,653 41,222 41,585
Singapore 83 113 285 74 8 71 152
Sri Lanka 374 2,597 350 204 136 147 278
Syrian Arab Rep. 2,299 800 25 48,720 92,489 76,306 4
Thailand 5,975 6,657 16,205 25,343 22,462 8,809 4,668
Turkey 3,556 10,764 46,736 77,518 89,644 131,610 206,281
United Arab Emirates 800 1,037 5,872 2,652 2,085 1,158 2,295
Viet Nam 2,500 930 1,679 1,675 1,396 2,134 2,002
Yemen 150 6 4 82 7 196 713
ASIA 204,085 250,279 386,391 514,684 539,345 536,812 552,805
WORLD 944,793 1,111,230 1,414,784 1,674,065 1,765,121 2,021,225 1,809,404
Source: FAO

The expansion trade from Malaysia can be attributed to increased purchases by its major customer, Singapore, the latter taking almost 121,000 tonnes or 88 per cent of the total in 2011.

Shipments from China have declined since 2008 in line with a reduction in sales to Hong Kong, which amounted to 82,000 tonnes in 2011.

Exports from India have also contracted since reaching a high of 67,000 tonnes in 2007.

The buyers of some 42,000 tonnes of eggs from Saudi Arabia, the only other significant exporter, are not specified in the trade data.

Asia's Shell Egg Imports

In quantity, the trend in imports of eggs into Asia broadly mirrors that for exports (Table 2 and Figure 2).

Table 2. Hen egg imports in shell into Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Afghanistan 0 1,392 12,154 17,308 16,106 12,669 20,705
Armenia 1,094 41 111 98 15 140 1,983
Azerbaijan 5,537 1,143 1,286 1,056 1,281 1,459 18,345
Bahrain 1,310 5,814 3,895 2,265 5,904 4,174 5,049
Bangladesh 2,400 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bhutan 856 0 0 0 0 286 286
Brunei Darussalam 600 1,066 341 624 573 544 907
Cambodia 45 0 35 142 142 0 59
China, mainland 156 3 30 158 70 185 243
China Hong Kong SAR 81,027 85,422 88,935 90,551 91,880 95,244 103,067
China Macao SAR 4,417 6,568 6,614 7,726 7,578 7,690 8,846
China, Taiwan 25 20 202 214 198 144 38
Cyprus 39 416 1,096 627 258 593 751
Georgia 6,229 5,371 2,026 1,386 692 598 455
India 23 366 294 119 66 144 315
Indonesia 1,325 286 526 132 4 8 0
Iran Isl. Rep. 24 259 42 40 649 922 29,620
Iraq 10,800 4,016 62,084 121,861 178,834 199,482 188,187
Israel 330 1,785 4,819 3,609 5,662 7,100 5,588
Japan 1,844 14,584 3,505 2,441 736 809 4,622
Jordan 182 49 66 12 11 239 455
Kazakhstan 6,407 3,948 15,317 14,171 16,505 9,031 14,922
Korea Rep. 530 757 517 498 478 543 385
Kuwait 9,271 12,719 25,271 7,773 930 3,800 1,189
Kyrgyzstan 2,077 45 639 1,238 1,200 3,447 4,067
Lao Peo. Dem. Rep. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Lebanon 0 51 173 77 26 28 0
Malaysia 116 528 268 553 364 132 46
Mongolia 778 934 2,477 2,368 2,254 3,210 4,775
Myanmar 560 377 430 264 331 376 442
Nepal 0 71 40 20 0 62 5
Occ. Palestinian Ter. 2,500 1,500 2,200 2,200 2,200 2,200 2,200
Oman 11,388 13,800 19,170 15,145 15,664 16,605 18,176
Pakistan 63 41 162 326 142 1,484 667
Philippines 184 33 57 5 5 0 26
Qatar 5,636 8,347 8,812 14,273 15,000 17,614 717
Saudi Arabia 4,564 3,663 3,277 4,818 3,291 1,972 2,656
Singapore 40,308 54,688 62,330 69,127 72,260 75,837 75,491
Sri Lanka 0 40 15 478 0 100 431
Syrian Arab Rep. 0 29 370 30 0 88 5,562
Tajikistan 681 4,900 5,000 5,702 3,644 5,823 3,377
Thailand 6 102 204 79 14 32 191
Turkey 1,051 1,350 843 725 694 848 1,005
Turkmenistan 3,400 8 153 840 800 800 3,921
United Arab Emirates 24,366 28,891 29,140 33,648 13,945 15,498 22,321
Uzbekistan 148 104 40 150 189 171 322
Viet Nam 110 0 4 11 12 1 156
Yemen 1,735 0 573 125 210 27 65
ASIA 235,842 269,228 369,757 430,899 464,405 498,406 558,623
WORLD 886,023 1,093,651 1,468,005 1,580,962 1,627,866 1,681,751 1,681,176
Source: FAO

There are several reasons why the world total for imports does not equate with that for exports, which have been identified in other of these regional reports. Assuming that the total exported is also the actual total imported, then the purchases by Asian countries of nearly 560,000 tonnes in 2011 (Table 2) represents almost one-third of the world total of 1.8 million tonnes (Table 1).

world egg imports FAO
Figure 2. Imports of hen eggs in shell ('000 tonnes)

Iraq is by far the leading importer taking some 188,000 tonnes (34 per cent of the regional total) in 2011, most if not all of which are likely to have been purchased from Iran.

Asia's second largest buyer of shell eggs is Hong Kong, importing 103,000 tonnes in 2011, of which some 64,000 tonnes came from mainland China and 21,000 tonnes from the US.

Third in this listing comes Singapore with purchases of almost 76,000 tonnes, nearly all being obtained from Malaysia.

Dried Egg Trade

Asia is not a significant region in the exports of dried egg, the quantity having declined from around 11,000 tonnes in 2008 to 7,400 tonnes in 2011 (Table 3 and Figure 3). It should be noted that the FAO data on the trade in dried eggs does not include dried albumin.

Table 3. Exports of dried egg from Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Azerbaijan 0 0 0 0 9 0 0
China Hong Kong SAR 0 2 6 0 1 2 4
China, mainland 95 1,515 2,569 3,421 2,032 1,473 1,058
China, Taiwan 16 19 34 39 42 50 64
Cyprus 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
India 957 7,699 7,719 7,250 6,763 6,085 6,240
Indonesia 2 3 0 39 2 22 0
Iran Isl. Rep. 2 75 0 0 0 0 0
Israel 808 185 134 59 0 0 0
Japan 6 23 4 12 22 14 6
Jordan 1 0 0 0 0 1 2
Kazakhstan 13 4 2 0 0 0 0
Korea Rep. 6 0 5 6 20 0 18
Lebanon 0 1 70 28 14 3 0
Malaysia 0 0 0 15 78 0 0
Philippines 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
Qatar 0 17 0 2 2 2 2
Saudi Arabia 0 16 351 0 0 0 0
Singapore 0 5 0 10 1 0 0
Syrian Arab Rep. 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Thailand 200 5 5 36 5 3 11
Turkey 9 0 0 0 0 1 0
United Arab Emirates 0 196 10 58 58 43 2
Uzbekistan 13 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yemen 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
ASIA 2,135 9,765 10,910 10,978 9,050 7,699 7,407
WORLD 29,412 47,578 54,735 57,614 57,074 55,800 59,534
The data does not include dried albumin
Source: FAO

The major player here is India, whose exports amounted to 6,240 tonnes in 2011, with Germany (1,621 tonnes), Indonesia (997 tonnes), Japan (832 tonnes), Denmark (602 tonnes) and Viet Nam (346 tonnes) the main customers. However, data from the International Egg Commission (IEC) suggests that India’s dried egg exports rose to a record 9,000 tonnes in 2012.

The only other significant exporter in this region is mainland China although the quantities sold in recent years declined to around 1,000 tonnes in 2011, most of which were bought by Japan (217 tonnes), the Republic of Korea (134 tonnes), Iran (133 tonnes) and the United Arab Emirates (107 tonnes).

world dried egg exports FAO
Figure 3. Exports of dried egg ('000 tonnes)

Asia is more active on the import side of the dried egg trade, the quantities having risen to exceed 13,000 tonnes in 2011 (Table 4 and Figure 5).

Japan is easily the major buyer, taking almost 6,400 tonnes in 2011, some 5,000 tonnes of which was supplied by the US and 610 tonnes by India. According to the IEC, Japan’s imports of all dried egg products amounted to 17,300 tonnes in 2011 and were about the same level in 2012.

Table 4. Imports of dried egg into Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Armenia 0 15 23 17 19 145 24
Azerbaijan 0 0 0 8 23 28 60
Bahrain 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
Bangladesh 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Cambodia 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
China Hong Kong SAR 100 167 161 153 171 153 168
China Macao SAR 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
China, mainland 1 3 5 20 21 44 39
China, Taiwan 87 55 320 405 161 201 270
Cyprus 2 3 10 3 23 9 47
Georgia 1 0 0 1 5 3 2
India 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
Indonesia 252 393 994 1,154 1,205 1,296 1,183
Iran Isl. Rep. 0 0 55 31 7 31 185
Iraq 0 7 0 0 0 1 1
Israel 0 1 19 9 20 19 28
Japan 4,582 7,460 6,284 6,018 5,088 5,005 6,358
Jordan 4 408 574 657 716 778 724
Kazakhstan 82 700 944 723 733 579 85
Korea Dem. Peo. Rep. 30 0 6 6 6 6 6
Korea Rep. 271 448 471 307 356 340 572
Kuwait 84 46 30 33 2 13 41
Kyrgyzstan 0 0 6 0 0 0 0
Lebanon 5 2 4 1 1 8 3
Malaysia 121 88 122 105 76 142 67
Mongolia 4 0 1 0 0 0 0
Myanmar 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
Oman 0 18 0 316 36 188 27
Pakistan 11 138 14 23 12 20 142
Philippines 478 509 422 409 552 557 534
Qatar 0 195 204 142 142 219 219
Saudi Arabia 209 490 675 441 845 544 909
Singapore 120 24 16 44 30 20 127
Sri Lanka 0 53 166 205 108 15 8
Syrian Arab Rep. 6 106 11 21 13 45 13
Thailand 320 309 279 354 330 225 416
Turkey 93 51 40 45 31 55 58
United Arab Emirates 0 177 171 79 79 223 919
Yemen 34 27 43 67 26 84 144
ASIA 6,904 11,899 12,071 11,798 10,838 10,996 13,380
WORLD 34,244 53,613 60,850 55,672 53,671 59,408 59,732
The data does not include dried albumin
Source: FAO
world imports dried egg powder FAO
Figure 4. Imports of dried egg ('000 tonnes)

Asia Does Little Trade in Liquid Egg Products

Asia exports little liquid egg (Table 5 and Figure 5), this business being dominated by Europe.

Table 5. Liquid egg exports from Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Bahrain 0 61 1 1 13 39 0
China Hong Kong SAR 53 5 56 63 49 81 150
China Macao SAR 0 4 1 0 1 0 0
China, mainland 2,032 4,955 3,102 3,215 3,197 3,435 3,606
China, Taiwan 22 275 360 442 131 62 309
India 4,539 1,500 351 283 523 600 443
Indonesia 9 82 0 0 0 0 1
Iran Isl. Rep. 0 22 43 7 7 6 0
Israel 14 0 23 81 173 241 85
Japan 36 22 21 25 6 6 6
Kazakhstan 10 0 0 0 0 0 0
Korea Rep. 37 2 14 11 11 57 0
Lebanon 0 0 25 24 2 0 0
Malaysia 48 52 705 589 205 210 112
Saudi Arabia 24 266 1,730 1,202 1,734 2,738 5,503
Singapore 25 10 7 1 3 5 8
Sri Lanka 0 1 1 1 2 0 0
Thailand 2,369 2,950 2,845 3,219 2,814 3,467 3,469
Turkey 0 0 9 1 0 0 1
United Arab Emirates 0 106 27 29 104 498 185
ASIA 9,218 10,313 9,321 9,214 8,987 11,489 13,878
WORLD 144,191 194,078 217,255 235,998 266,442 272,639 313,984
Source: FAO
world egg exports liquid egg products FAO
Figure 5. Exports of liquid egg ('000 tonnes)

Asia’s imports of liquid egg amounted to less than 26,000 tonnes in 2011 (Table 6 and Figure 6) almost half (12,220 tonnes) of which went to Japan, with the US the leading supplier with 8,600 tonnes) while mainland China (1,400 tonnes) and Thailand (1,300 tonnes) played secondary roles.

Table 6. Liquid egg imports into Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Armenia 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
Azerbaijan 0 1 0 0 0 20 0
Bahrain 45 41 42 80 59 100 149
Brunei Darussalam 30 42 23 71 215 239 135
China Hong Kong SAR 1,789 1,318 1,753 1,789 1,647 2,186 2,297
China Macao SAR 0 17 65 73 56 0 36
China, mainland 140 3 3 97 12 6 6
China, Taiwan 110 384 141 104 144 360 197
Cyprus 3 155 446 566 574 694 614
Georgia 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
India 0 1 9 1 12 24 1
Indonesia 170 165 162 145 44 20 46
Iran Isl. Rep. 0 17 0 0 0 24 0
Israel 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Japan 14,982 22,678 6,467 8,123 7,645 9,680 12,220
Jordan 1 0 22 41 108 129 121
Kazakhstan 0 1 0 8 18 8 337
Korea Rep. 572 1,855 1,463 735 476 833 1,353
Kuwait 123 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lebanon 2 6 14 9 32 79 39
Malaysia 90 26 1 2 5 0 21
Maldives 0 23 60 20 16 30 15
Mongolia 27 1 14 0 0 0 0
Nepal 0 1 10 6 0 0 0
Oman 180 125 580 478 351 597 552
Pakistan 1 11 11 0 0 0 1
Philippines 292 428 458 677 846 842 676
Qatar 1 41 1,123 1,700 1,600 1,571 1,600
Saudi Arabia 458 499 610 0 0 1,002 2,415
Singapore 1,219 609 624 443 439 545 736
Sri Lanka 1 2 2 17 35 41 85
Thailand 66 61 99 62 103 102 147
Turkey 169 0 2 40 120 103 43
United Arab Emirates 250 332 4,089 4,687 1,855 1,631 1,544
Uzbekistan 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Yemen 0 0 0 0 6 6 7
ASIA 20,724 28,845 18,294 20,001 16,445 20,872 25,393
WORLD 124,335 189,368 215,287 230,369 249,486 270,486 271,809
Source: FAO
world imports liquid egg products FAO
Figure 6. Imports of liquid egg ('000 tonnes)

March 2014

 

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