GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS 2014: Asia Supplies 60 Per Cent of World's Eggs10 March 2014
Egg production in Asia accounts for nearly 60 per cent of the world total, according to industry analyst, Terry Evans.
In 2011, egg output in this region amounted to 38.3 million tonnes, which was 58.7 per cent of the global figure of 65.2 million tonnes.
While it looks as though 2012 saw little or no growth, Asia’s egg industries now appear to have embarked on the expansion road again with production estimated to have reached at least 39 million tonnes last year which would equate with around 58.5 per cent of a global forecast of a little below 67 million tonnes (Table 1).
|Table 1. World egg production (million tonnes)|
|Sources: FAO to 2011; 2012 and 2013 author's estimates|
The growing importance of Asia when compared with the other major regions is evident from Figure 1. Over the period 2000 to 2011 Asia’s egg industry grew by almost 2.6 per cent per year. As this was a little faster that the global total - which was a shade under 2.3 per cent - so Asia’s contribution actually rose from 56.8 per cent to 58.8 per cent.
These Food and Agriculture (FAO) figures include all layers, both commercial and backyard flocks. Also, in most instances, hatching eggs are included. Globally, hatching eggs are considered to represent around five per cent of production but on an individual country basis the proportion of hatching eggs can range from an insignificant amount up to 12 per cent or more in countries which have a large broiler industry in relation to the size of the layer sector.
FAO data indicate that the total number of layers worldwide in 2000 stood at 5,004 million, of which 3,055 million (61 per cent) were in Asia. By 2011, the world total had risen to 6,617 million with 4,220 million (64 per cent) in Asia.
|Table 2. Hen egg production in Asia ('000 tonnes)|
|China, Hong Kong SAR||0.4||0.3||0.3||0.3||0.3||0.3||0.3|
|China, Macao SAR||1.0||0.6||0.9||0.4||0.4||0.4||0.4|
|Iran Isl. Rep.||579.0||758.0||703.0||727.0||725.4||741.0||741.0|
|Korea Dem. Peo. Rep.||110.0||130.0||103.0||107.0||104.0||114.0||120.0|
|Lao Peo. Dem. Rep.||10.0||13.0||13.4||14.5||14.8||15.0||15.0|
|Occ Palestinian Terr.||36.9||37.4||41.0||39.4||36.6||29.0||30.0|
|Syrian Arab Rep.||127.3||155.2||171.4||151.4||162.4||163.3||171.9|
|United Arab Emirates||14.6||17.2||25.4||25.4||30.0||26.1||26.1|
In 2011, some 31 million tonnes, or more than 80 per cent of Asia’s production, came from just four countries - China (24 million tonnes), India (3.5 million tonnes), Japan (2.5 million tonnes) and Indonesia (1.2 million tonnes).
An additional six countries, each producing more than 500,000 tonnes a year, accounted for a further four million tonnes (10 per cent), namely Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, the Republic of Korea and Malaysia. Thus, the 10 largest producers were responsible for almost 35 million tonnes or 91 per cent of the regional total (Table 4).
|Table 3. Asian egg production ranking in 2011 ('000 tonnes)|
|Iran Isl. Rep.||741.0|
|Syrian Arab Rep.||171.9|
|Korea Dem. Peo. Rep.||120.0|
|Occ. Palestinian Terr.||30.0|
|United Arab Emirates||26.1|
|Lao Peo. Dem. Rep.||15.0|
|China, Macao SAR||0.4|
|China, Hong Kong SAR||0.3|
Although when compared with 2000, the total produced by these 10 nations increased by nearly one-third, the variation in the performance of the individual countries was wide ranging from Japan and Turkey where output showed virtually no change, to Indonesia (+82 per cent), Pakistan (+76 per cent) and India (+72 per cent). Outside this Top 10, several countries reported excellent growth. Output in Myanmar more than trebled, reaching 372,000 tonnes in 2011, while production doubled or more so in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kuwait and Kyrgyzstan (Table 2).
Not surprisingly, mainland China’s industry dominates the scene, accounting for almost 24 million tonnes (62 per cent) of the regional total of 38.3 million tonnes in 2011 (Tables 2 and 3) and almost 37 per cent of the world total of 65.2 million tonnes. However, a little surprising, is that mainland China’s contribution to the Asia total in percentage terms actually declined a little from 63.9 per cent to 62.3 per cent between 2000 and 2011. During this period China’s average growth rate was 2.3 per cent per year.
One series of figures quotes egg production in China in 2012 at more than 28.6 million tonnes. However, this total includes some 4.2 million tonnes of eggs other than hen eggs.
Data published by the International Egg Commission (IEC) indicates that output in China in 2012 had contracted from 24 to 23 million tonnes although this might have been due in part to the 2012 figure being based on an average egg weight of 62g compared with 63g which was used in the 2011 calculation.
Some 90 per cent of China’s commercial flock is considered to be in cages with nine per cent on free range and one per cent in a barn system. Around 90 per cent are white-egg layers. Short-term forecasts point to continued growth of about two per cent per year to 2017.
All the data on the egg industry in India point to strong growth over the past decade or so with an average of between five and six per cent per year. However, estimates of output vary greatly according to source. FAO statistics indicate that production has increased from 2.0 million tonnes in 2000 to 3.5 million tonnes in 2011. In terms of the number of eggs produced these tonnages translate to 36.6 billion in 2000 and 63.5 billion in 2011.
India’s ICRA (formerly Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India Limited) estimates egg output in 2012 to have been 66 billion, while the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) puts production in that year at 75 billion with a forecast for 2015 of 95 billion eggs.
India’s reporter to the IEC maintains that egg production has risen from 3.34 million tonnes in 2009 to 4.16 million tonnes in 2012. At an average egg weight of 55g, this latter figure equates with 75.6 billion eggs.
Despite these differences, the general consensus is that the industry has exhibited rapid growth and will continue to do so though the forecasts range between four and eight per cent per year.
The ratio of brown to white eggs in India is considered to be 8:92 with 100 per cent of the commercial flock housed in cages. However, the Humane Society International/India claims that it has persuaded the top-egg producing states to declare that confining hens to battery cages validates the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act of 1960 and that the Animal Welfare Board of India has issued an advisory notice to all state governments stating that no new battery cages should be installed and that existing cages should be phased out by 2017.
With the increased costs involved in switching to less intensive forms of production, if cages were to be banned, it could have a drastic effect on the industry’s future growth rates.
|Table 4. Leading egg-producing countries in Asia ('000 tonnes)|
|Iran Isl. Rep.||579.0||758.0||703.0||727.0||725.4||741.0||741.0|
|Total of above||26,876.5||29,969.4||31,740.7||12,685.5||33,928.4||34,420.7||34,927.7|
Although Japan is the third largest producer in Asia, its annual output has shown little movement since 2000 at around 2.5 million tonnes a year. Just over 60 per cent of the eggs are white-shelled, while 96 per cent of the flock is housed in cages.
While egg production in Indonesia grew by 82 per cent - or 5.6 per cent per year - between 2000 and 2011, in the last three years of this series the gains slowed to 1.3 per cent. The level of egg consumption per person is low, pointing to considerable potential for future growth although even if the uptake per person fails to expand, total consumption will rise in line with population growth which is expected to average around one per cent per year in the near future.
According to FAO figures, Turkey’s egg industry has shown no significant growth between 2000 and 2011. However, data provided by the IEC point to a higher level of annual production, and a sharp recovery in 2012 when output rose to almost 1.1 million tonnes from 874,000 tonnes in the previous year. All birds are housed in cages with some 75 per cent of the eggs being white.
Between 2000 and 2010 egg production in Iran grew by 2.5 per cent per year. Although the FAO data for 2011 shows no change over the previous year, there are occasions when if the official figures for a year are not available, the previous year’s figures are inserted in order to arrive at a regional total. IEC figures put the 2010 total a little higher than the FAO (Table 4) at 766,000 tonnes. Output then declined in 2011 as a result of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks to 700,000 tonnes but then rebounded to 912,000 tonnes in 2012. All production is in cages and almost entirely white-shelled.